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Edible flowers bloom with well being advantages

In a current research printed within the journal Meals, researchers examined the bioactive compound compositions, aroma profiles, and antioxidant exercise ranges of 4 edible flower species. Their findings contribute to the scientific understanding of edible flowers’ dietary and well being advantages.

Study: Phytochemical, Nutritional and Mineral Content of Four Edible Flowers. Image Credit: Stephanie Frey / ShutterstockExamine: Phytochemical, Dietary and Mineral Content material of 4 Edible Flowers. Picture Credit score: Stephanie Frey / Shutterstock


The Mediterranean weight-reduction plan and different conventional and wholesome dietary patterns embody the consumption of edible flowers which are typically wealthy in micro- and macronutrients and antioxidants whereas elevating the style and texture of dishes.

Whereas some species of edible flowers have been studied to characterize their dietary properties, others are comparatively unknown, together with some generally consumed varieties. Analyzing their mineral, dietary, and phytochemical content material can result in the event of latest useful meals and pure treatments to enhance public well being and vitamin.

In regards to the research

On this research, researchers analyzed the flowers of Viola cornuta, Fuchsia regia, Dianthus chinensis, and Cucurbita moschata. Whereas C. moschata was cultivated in an open discipline in Italy, the opposite species had been grown in a close-by greenhouse.

Viola cornuta. Picture Credit score: joloei / Shutterstock

Natural practices had been adopted for all vegetation. Totally open flowers had been harvested within the early morning as soon as they matured. The flowers had been positioned in three similar teams or replicates; half of every replicate was vacuum freeze-dried whereas the opposite half was frozen in liquid nitrogen.

The frozen flowers had been used to extract main metabolites or soluble sugars, particularly sucrose, D-fructose, and D-glucose, and secondary metabolites, together with polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. Radical scavenging exercise was additionally measured from these samples. The freeze-dried flowers had been used to find out natural nitrogen, phosphorus, different micro- and macro-elements, and crude proteins.

Moreover, the B nutritional vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and folate) and vitamin C or ascorbic acid had been extracted and quantified. Contemporary flowers had been used to gather risky natural compounds (VOCs) that had been injected right into a gasoline chromatograph to evaluate the aroma profile. Electron influence mass spectrometry was used to research the compounds after separation.

One-way evaluation of variance (ANOVA), statistical testing, principal element evaluation (PCA), and hierarchical cluster evaluation (HCA) had been used to research the biochemical outcomes additional.


D. chinensis had the best soluble sugar content material whereas V. cornuta had the least; the latter additionally confirmed decrease ranges of soluble sugars than different Viola species. Sucrose was not discovered within the C. moschata or F. regia samples and D-glucose was essentially the most considerable sugar throughout all 4 species.

C. moschata and V. cornuta confirmed the best crude protein content material. Macroelements like calcium, potassium, and phosphorus had been considerable, whereas the most typical micronutrients had been manganese, zinc, and iron.

Notably, the analyzed flowers confirmed greater ranges of calcium than related species that had been beforehand studied, suggesting that they might present a good portion of the every day really helpful consumption.

Analyses of antioxidant compounds, together with polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids, confirmed that F. regia exhibited the best whole polyphenolic content material, whereas V. cornuta had the best carotenoid content material.

F. regia had far greater ranges of whole phenolic compounds than different recognized Fuchsia species whereas V. cornuta was richer in carotenoids than different Viola species. The evaluation of radical scavenging exercise validated these outcomes.

C. moschata confirmed the best content material of all B nutritional vitamins besides riboflavin, doubtlessly aiding in assembly every day consumption necessities, significantly if consumed recent. That is noteworthy as Cucurbita flowers are sometimes cooked earlier than consumption and often comprise decrease ranges of niacin, whole folate, and thiamine. Riboflavin ranges had been low throughout all 4 species.

Vitamin C or ascorbic acid content material was highest in V. cornuta. As this metabolite exhibits indicators of progressive lower after it’s harvested, the flowers needs to be consumed shortly after harvesting or saved suitably in order that crucial ranges of vitamin C attain the shoppers.

VOC evaluation revealed distinct aroma profiles. Every species had distinctive VOC compositions, with D. chinensis and F. regia sharing related profiles. Notably, C. moschata and V. cornuta exhibited completely different compositions, with particular compounds contributing to their aroma. Particularly, V. cornuta emitted excessive ranges of monoterpene hydrocarbons and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons.

Multivariate statistical analyses, together with PCA and HCA, distinguished the species based mostly on biochemical and risky compositions. V. cornuta stood out on account of its distinctive VOC profile and better manganese and zinc content material. C. moschata was notable on account of its low antioxidant exercise and richness in phosphorus and niacin.

In the meantime, F. regia and D. chinensis had been clustered shut collectively, characterised by the emission of cis-geranyl acetone and decanal, whereas exhibiting greater ranges of D-fructose, D-glucose, iron, and sodium.


Understanding the aroma profiles, antioxidant exercise ranges, and bioactive compound compositions of edible flowers is vital to exploiting this comparatively underutilized organic useful resource for the event of novel useful meals and pure treatments, with potential functions to create fragrances as properly.

Additional analysis is required to grasp how these compounds might be stabilized and preserved. In the meantime, many species of edible flowers stay to be characterised and evaluated.

Journal reference:

  • Phytochemical, dietary and mineral content material of 4 edible flowers. Marchioni, I., Gabriele, M., Carmassi, G., Ruffoni, B., Pistelli, L., Pistelli, L., Najar, B. Meals (2024). 10.3390/foods13060939, https://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/13/6/939


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